Nederlands Soortenregister

Overzicht van de Nederlandse biodiversiteit

Brakwaterpok Amphibalanus improvisus

Indeling

Balanidae [familie]
Amphibalanus [genus] (3/2)
improvisus [soort]

Indeling

Balanidae [familie]
Amphibalanus [genus] (3/2)
improvisus [soort]

Exotenpaspoort ?

Exotenstatus Gevestigd
Frequentie Algemeen
Invasiviteit Potentieel invasief
Jaar van introductie 1827
Jaar van eerste melding 1827
Type introductie Niet opzettelijk
Wijze van introductie
  • Aquacultuur
  • Lifters op of in schip/boot
  • Ballastwater schip/boot
  • Aangroei op scheepsrompen
  • Onderling verbonden waterwegen/bassins/zeeën
  • Impact Concurrentie
    Vastgesteld in provincies
  • Friesland
  • Groningen
  • Noord-Holland
  • Zuid-Holland
  • Zeeland
  • Habitats
  • Mariene habitats
  • Estuaria en brakwatergebieden
  • Kustgebied
  • Natuurlijke verspreiding
  • Noordelijke Atlantische Oceaan
  • Zuidelijke Atlantische Oceaan
  • Beschrijving invasiviteit (Engels) This species has been found in European waters including the Baltic Sea for 200 years or more. The species could be considered fully naturalized. In some European countries, e.g. the United Kingdom, the species is now considered native. It is a suspension feeder, it grows very fast, is highly euryhaline, lives in a great number of brackish, marine and sometimes nearly fresh waterhabitats. It is eurythermal and tolerates temperatures as low as -2° C and up to 35° C (Southward, 1957); it is tolerant of low oxygen concentration, of eutrophication and pollution (Jensen, K.R., 2010).
    Beschrijving (potentiële) ecologische impact (Engels) B. improvisus is a competitor for space, but in the Baltic there was no evidence it has a negative effect on community diversity (Dürr & Wahl, 2004). The species may change the habitat, foulling mussels and oysters. There are no specific data of negative impact on the ecosystem in the Netherlands
    Beschrijving (potentiële) economische impact (Engels) The species is part of the fouling community on hulls of ships and other structures. It may form dense layers which attract associate fauna and produces organic debris. The species is known for clogging up pipes of power plants etc. in the Baltic. This may also be the case in for instance the Noorzeekanaal-area, but as yet there are no specific indications of any economic impact in the Netherlands.
    Beschrijving verspreiding binnen Nederland (Engels) Wolff (2005) mentions this species as either a European native species or an early immigrant. The first record in the Netherlands is from Waardenburg (1827) who mentions the species - as Balanus ovularis - from the former Zuiderzee. In following years the species was also found in many brackish inland waters and along the coast. Nowadays B. improvisus is a common species in the Netherlands in marine, brackish and sometimes nearly fresh waters (Holthuis, 1961; Huwae, 1985; Van der Gaag et al., 1999).

    Publicaties