Nederlands Soortenregister

Overzicht van de Nederlandse biodiversiteit

Spaanse wegslak Arion vulgaris

Indeling

Arionidae [familie]
Arion [genus] (10/8)
vulgaris [soort]

Indeling

Arionidae [familie]
Arion [genus] (10/8)
vulgaris [soort]

Exotenpaspoort ?

Exotenstatus Gevestigd
Frequentie Zeer algemeen
Invasiviteit Invasief
Jaar van introductie 1988
Jaar van eerste melding 1989
Type introductie Niet opzettelijk
Wijze van introductie
  • Verbetering landschap/flora en fauna
  • Landbouw
  • Botanische tuin/dierentuin/aquaria
  • Bosbouw
  • Tuinbouw
  • Contaminant op planten
  • Transport van habitatmateriaal (grond, vegetatie, hout)
  • Overige transportwijzen
  • Onwetend bezit
  • Impact
  • Decompositie
  • Herbivorie
  • Nieuwe bron in voedselweb
  • Concurrentie
  • Genetisch
  • Vastgesteld in provincies
  • Drenthe
  • Flevoland
  • Friesland
  • Gelderland
  • Groningen
  • Limburg
  • Noord-Brabant
  • Noord-Holland
  • Overijssel
  • Utrecht
  • Zuid-Holland
  • Zeeland
  • Habitats
  • Stedelijke gebieden
  • Agrarische gebieden
  • Verstoorde gebieden
  • Gematigd loofbos
  • Graslanden en heide
  • Kassen of composthopen
  • Struweel
  • Natuurlijke verspreiding Europa
    Beschrijving invasiviteit (Engels) Arion vulgaris is a highly invasive slug. It is (as the only terrestrial gastropod) considered among the 100 worst alien species in Europe within the DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway and is a serious horticultural pest in large parts of Europe, being dispersed (eggs) by soil used for horticultural purposes and through several other pathways. These gregarious animals may become highly abundant and a pest at localities where they have been accidentally introduced, as well as in some places where the species is thought to be indigenous. The invasiveness of A. vulgaris can be concluded from the vast expansion in Europe, especially in the last decades. The original description is from France. This is perhaps the area of origin, but this may also be the Western Iberian peninsula and/or Ireland and Great Britain (in Britain known since at least 1956). The species is known from Switzerland since at least 1956. At present A. vulgaris is introduced and widely spread almost everywhere in Europe and is nowadays known from the following European countries (between brackets the year of the first record, mostly recorded under the name A. lusitanicus): Austria (1971); Belgium (1973); Bulgaria (1966); Croatia; Czech Republic (1991); Denmark (1991); Estonia; Finland (1990); France (expansion from native range since 1955); Germany (1969); Great Britain (known since 1954, rapid spread in 2014); Hungary (2000); Iceland (2003); Ireland; Italy (since 1965); Latvia; Lithuania; Netherlands (1988); Norway (1988); Poland (1985); Romania (2012); Serbia (2002); Slovakia (1992); Slovenia; Sweden (1975); Switzerland (since at least 1956); Ukraine (2007) (Soes & De Winter 2010, Wikipedia 2015). A. vulgaris inhabits cultivated habitats as well as all kinds of natural habitats, including forests. Although the species has a life span of less than a year, the univoltine animals are able to lay up to 400 eggs a year, which is much higher than autochtonous Arionidae. Like other pulmonate slugs, the animals are hermaphrodite: one single slug can start an infestation.
    Beschrijving (potentiële) ecologische impact (Engels) From countries outside the Netherlands several negative ecological effects are mentioned for A. vulgaris (usually as A. lusitanicius). For instance interspecific competition for food and space and thus reducing the autochtonous species diversity and overall abundance of A. rufus (Linnaeus, 1758). For the same species as well as for Arion ater (Linnaeus, 1758) introgressive hybridization is also mentioned (a.o. from Sweden and Germany). Especially at northern latitudes mating of Arion vulgaris with A. ater in the last decade is said to have resulted in a more resilient hybrid slug ('super-slug'), which exhibits an increased tolerance to cold (Dreijers & Reise, 2011; Hagnell et al., 2003; 2004). A. vulgaris (lusitanicus) is generally believed to be a serious pest in horticulture and agriculture, as well as in other cultivated habitats and gardens and (especially) kitchen, herb, potager, and vegetable gardens (Rabitsch 2006). In the Netehrlands at present this slug is not considered a serious pest with a large impact on vegetables, flowers and other crops or at least, much less so than for instance the autochtonous slug Deroceras reticulatus . There are as yet also no indications of large scale competition with indigenous species (Soes & De Winter 2011). However, this may change in the near future when the species does, as is expected, expands further and colonizes larger parts of the country and also establishes itself further into more natural habitats.
    Beschrijving (potentiële) economische impact (Engels) Soes & De Winter (2011) found as yet no solid indications of a large economical impact (damage) of this species in the Netherlands. Cleaning of soil, plants, seedlings and other materials for export may however have some negative economical impact.
    Beschrijving verspreiding binnen Nederland (Engels) The non-indigenous distribution of Arion vulgaris includes the whole of western, central and northern Europe and also various parts of Southern and Eastern Europe. The species is also known from the USA since 1998 (Rabitsch 2006). In the Netherlands the species was first found (anatomically determined, confirmed species) in 1988 in Bennekom, province of Gelderland, reported under the name A. lusitanicus (De Winter, 1989). Although Arionids are only incidentally dissected to confirm determination, this species occurs at present in all provinces (Soes & De Winter 2010) and is probably already the most common Arionid slug in the Netherlands, occurring in numbers that follow densities mentioned for Germany and Great-Brittain: on average circa 12 specimens per m², but occasionally, like in great-Brittain in the summer of 2007, with up to 1.000 specimens per m², especially in cultivated areas (Die Welt 2007).

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