Black berry is one of the first North American plants introduced in Europe. In the crisis years (1930-1940) the shrub was planted on a large scale in heathland. This led to an enormous expansion on the sandy soils. The species is not very critical, grows fast, has few herbivores because of its toxicity and its numerous fruits are easily transported by birds. It is notoriously difficult to remove. At first problems were few as black berry was confined to pine plantations with limited nature values. Later also nature reserves were colonised. The shrub is now present on all sandy soils.
Distribution in the Netherlands (1975-2008). Source FLORON.
Odé, B., Beringen, R.