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Quaggamossel Dreissena bugensis

Foto: Marion Haarsma


Dreissenidae [familie]
Dreissena [genus] (2/1)
bugensis [soort]

Exotenpaspoort ?

Reële kans op vestiging? Ja
Betrouwbaarheid beoordeling Grote mate van zekerheid (meerdere bronnen)
Vestigingsstatus Gevestigd
Zeldzaamheid Zeer algemeen
Invasiviteit Invasief
Invasiviteit (toelichting) D. bugensis is capable of reaching extremely high densities. It was identified as the top ranking invasive species threat to the UK in a study of almost 600 non-native species (Roy et al. 2014, Cabi 2015). These sessile filter-feeding bivalves show a large expansion in Europe. In their native area, brackish water is the principle habitat, but here as well as outside the places of origin the animals also inhabit fresh water of many rivers, canals, reservoirs and lakes. In Europe D. bugensis is introduced to Germany, Great Brittain, France, Hungary, Moldova, The Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Russian Federation, Ukraine. In many cases the species is exponentionaly expanding. It is also introduced to and expanding in America and Canada (Mills et al. 1996, Orlova et al. 2005, Cabi 2015). It has a high fertility, the number of eggs produced are believed to be up to 960,000 per female per year (Keller et al. 2007). Although spawning usually does not start if water temperature is below 12°C, spawning of females in deeper water was recorded at temperatures as low as 4.8°C (Roe and MacIsaac 1997). Hatched free-swimming larva can stay planktonic for 18-90 days before they settle, secrete a byssal thread and connect to the substratum (Ackerman et al. 1994). In Cabi (2015) the factors of invasiveness of D. bugensis are summerized as follows: capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food, fast growing, gregarious, a high genetic variability, a high reproductive potential, high adaptability to different environments, invasive outside its native range, tolerance to or at least benefiting from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc. The primary pathway of introductions into new areas located far outside its native range is shipping (Orlova et al. 2005). Ballast water of transoceanic ships supposedly introduced the species into the Great Lakes of North America (Mills et al. 1996), while in Europe also interbasin shipping via man-made canals has resulted in transition of the from the Ponto-Caspian region into several river systems. In general there are two principal means for the further spread of the Quaggamussel: natural downstream drift of planktonic larvae from invaded upstream localities and human-mediated transfers (Orlova et al. 2005). Apart from this accidental introductions at local levels may happen due to overland transportation of recreational boats and fishing gear (Cabi 2015). Ship/boat hull fouling by attached animals is also a way of transport, as is transport via water currents, attached to uprooted macrophytes and other floating vegetation/debris, or via macrophytes entangled on boat trailers, anchors and other machinery/equipment (Cabi 2015).
Type introductie Niet opzettelijk
Jaar van eerste melding 2006
Natuurlijke verspreiding Europa
Verspreiding in Nederland
  • Flevoland
  • Friesland
  • Gelderland
  • Groningen
  • Limburg
  • Noord-Brabant
  • Noord-Holland
  • Overijssel
  • Utrecht
  • Zuid-Holland
  • Zeeland
  • Verspreiding in Nederland (toelichting) D. bugensis is a Ponto-Caspian species. The original native range is the Lower Dnieper River and Southern Bug River in Ukraine (Son 2007). Over the last few decades the species has extended its range dramatically. The first extentions were observed in Russia (Orlova et al., 2004) where it reached a.o. the River Volga (Zhulidov et al. 2004, 2005) and in Romania, Danube river (Micu & Telembici 2004, Popa & Popa 2006). Until 2005 the neighbourhood of Drobeta Turnu-Severin was considered the most western occurrence in Europe. Later it became clear that the species had extended its range between the 1940s and 1990s in three main directions: north along the cascades of reservoirs on the Dnieper River, east through the Don River system and then north along the reservoirs on the Volga River and northwest through the Dniester River (Cabi 2015). In 2006 D. bugensis was discovered in the Netherlands, far westward of its native area in the Rhine River Delta, in The Hollandsch Diep (Molloy et al., 2007; Bij de Vaate, 2006). Outside the Rhine basin, the species has spread to Belgium (Sablon et al. 2010; Marescaux et al., 2012a) and via the Meuse River to Germany (Matthews et al. 2014) and France (Marescaux et al. 2012b). It was discovered for the first time in the U.K. in October 2014 (Aldridge et al. 2014). D. bugensis also invaded the Great Lakes area of North America (Spidle et al. 1994), probably simultaneous with the zebra mussel in the mid-1980s. The most likely pathway being discharged as larvae in ballast water from transoceanic ships (Mills et al. 1994). Although Molloy et al. (2007) at first suggested introduction via the Main-Danube canal, ballast water from the Black Sea area being discharged around the Port of Rotterdam is now also seen as the most likely way of introduction to The Netherlands. The species has spread rapidly in the Netherlands between 2006-2015 and now occurs in all provinces (except perhaps Drenthe) and in all the rivers and greater Lakes. At many localities, for instance in Lake IJssel (IJsselmeer) the species has already replaced Dreissena polymorpha for the larger part (IJff 2014).
  • Estuaria en brakwatergebieden
  • Meren
  • Waterwegen
  • Oeverzones
  • Wijze van introductie
  • Vrijlating in natuur voor gebruik
  • Machines/apparatuur
  • Hengelsport-/visuitrusting
  • Ballastwater schip/boot
  • Aangroei op scheepsrompen
  • Onderling verbonden waterwegen/bassins/zeeën
  • Impact
  • Nieuwe bron in voedselweb
  • Concurrentie
  • Abiotische veranderingen
  • Volksgezondheid
  • Sociaal-economisch
  • Ecologische impact (toelichting) Due to its biological traits, D. bugensis can substantially affect the environment, food webs and biodiversity of the ecosystems it invades in positive as well as in negative ways (Cabi 2015). Aquatic habitats are modified via various mechanisms. They form complex three-dimensional reef-like structures composed of shells, that act as a shelter for smaller fishes, crustaceans and other organisms, and provide abundant food resources for all kinds of aquatic organisms (a.o. amphipods, copepods, ostracods, oligochaetes, hydrozoa). On the other hand burrowing amphipods and several unionid and sphaeriid bivalves may decline in the direct presence (Cabi 2015, Karatayev et al. 2007, Ward and Ricciardi 2007). Dreissenid mussels attached to the shells of unionids impede their burrowing and moving through the sediments and prevent them from opening their valves for respiration, feeding and reproduction. Especially during the initial stages of colonisation of a waterbody severe mass mortalities of native unionids do occur (Cabi 2015, Karatayev et al. 1997, Burlakova et al. 2000). As filter-feeder D. bugensis is capable of consuming a wide range of particles, a.o. algae, bacteria, detritus and micro-zooplankton. The most preferred foods are diatom and cryptophyte algae, especially those that contain long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids (Vanderploeg et al. 2002, Wacker & von Elert 2003). As excretory products faeces and pseudofaeces are formed, that are readily digestible for detritophagous animals. Dreissenids also improve the oxygen regime via their filtration activity. Among the other effects are benthification, an increase of water transparency and light penetration, a decrease of concentrations of seston and organic matter and biochemical oxygen demand and an increase in concentrations of ammonia, nitrates, and phosphates (Cabi 2015, Karatayev et al. 1997, Vanderploeg et al. 2002). In Cabi (2015) the impact mechanisms for D. bugensis mentioned are: competition - monopolizing resources, filtration, fouling, herbivory/grazing/browsing, interaction with other invasive species, pest and disease transmission, rapid growth. Summarized impact outcomes are: altered trophic level, damaged ecosystem services, ecosystem change, habitat alteration, increasing vulnerability to invasions, infrastructure damage, modification of hydrology, of natural benthic communities and of nutrient regime, negative impacts on human health and tourism, reduced amenity values, Threats to and loss of endangered species and native species and transportation disruption. As a result of competition of D. bugensis, the earlier invader Dreissena polymorpha is now rapidly declining, being outcompeted by its relative. In comperison D. bugensis is said to have an higher filtration rate than D. polymorpha (Diggins 2001) and so is likely to have an even greater environmental impact associated with filtration. The species also excretes less ammonia and phosphates than D. polymorpha (Conroy et al. 2005). Distribution, life-cycle and impact of D. bugensis in the Netherlands are described and summarized by IJf (2014).
    Economische impact (toelichting) The invasion of D. bugensis has resulted in several environmental and economic impacts. It does not possess any economic value or social benefit, although its use as a biomonitor of metal contamination has been investigated by Johns (2011). Especially in raw water-using industries, potable water treatment plants and electric power stations the mussels can cause extensive economic damage (Pimentel et al. 2005). Here they become a fouling problem, causing damage and increased operating expenses when they clog water-intake pipes and filtration systems, a.o. of electricity plants and fire prevention systems. The mussels also foul all kinds of structures (dams, docks, hulls of commercial and recreational vessels, etc.) (Molloy 1998). In Cabi (2015) many other impacts are summarized that may have economic consequences. In the USA alone, the estimated costs associated with Dreissena species (including Dreissena polymorpha) are said to total about 1 billion dollars per year (Pimentel et al. 2005). From the Netherlands no compiled data on the economic impact of the Quagga-mussel could be traced, but there is no doubt there is economic impact and that this may even sometimes be substantial, as is the case with Dreissena polymorpha.