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Amerikaanse boormossel Petricolaria pholadiformis

Foto: Sander Pieterse


Veneridae [familie]
Petricolaria [genus] (1/1)

Exotenpaspoort ?

Reële kans op vestiging? Ja
Betrouwbaarheid beoordeling Grote mate van zekerheid (meerdere bronnen)
Vestigingsstatus Gevestigd
Zeldzaamheid Zeer algemeen
Invasiviteit Invasief
Invasiviteit (toelichting) P. pholadiformis is native to the Eastern Coast of North America including the Gulf of Mexico. It was introduced in Europe around 1890 (river Crouch, Essex, England). The consensus is that it was imported with American oysters Crassostrea virginica (Vliz, 2011; Jensen, 2010). After the introduction at the beginning of the previous century, this species spread rapidly all over Europe, first northward to the Baltic, but later also southward. Nowadays it has even reached the African Westcoast (Congo) and the Meditterranean (Zenetos et al. 2009). Apart from being widely spread through Europe as non-indiginous species, other factors for its invasiveness are its ability to live in different types of habitats, the high fertility (the females producing up to 3,5 million eggs yearly) and the ability of the larvae to swim freely in the water for up to 21 days and travel long distances with currents (or in ballastwater of ships). Adults may probably also spread through driftwood being transported by currents.
Type introductie Niet opzettelijk
Jaar van eerste introductie 1899
Jaar van eerste melding 1932
Natuurlijke verspreiding
  • Noord-Amerika
  • Noordelijke Atlantische Oceaan
  • Verspreiding in Nederland
  • Friesland
  • Groningen
  • Noord-Holland
  • Zuid-Holland
  • Zeeland
  • Verspreiding in Nederland (toelichting) In 1899 the species was mentioned as occuring at the Belgian-Dutch coast but 1905 is considered to be the first validated Dutch record. The species is a common borer in peat, wood, soft limestone and even clay (locally in the Dutch Wadden Sea). It also lives at oysterreefs and musselbeds and has been recorded from all provinces bordering the sea. The species shows the Netherlands no obvious in- or decrease in numbers (De Bruyne et al. 2013).
  • Mariene habitats
  • Estuaria en brakwatergebieden
  • Wijze van introductie
  • Visserij
  • Aquacultuur
  • Onderling verbonden waterwegen/bassins/zeeën
  • Impact Concurrentie
    Ecologische impact (toelichting) Although often repeated in Dutch literature, there is no evidence that P. pholadiformis replaced Barnea candida at the Dutch and Belgian coasts (Eno et al. 1997). Neither has this been observed elsewhere. Later studies in Belgium even found B. candida to be the more dominant piddock (Wouters, 1993). In the Danish Limfjord the native Pholas dactylus is said to have been common at limestone (Jensen, 2010) before P. pholadiformis was introduced. As this species no longer lives in the Limfjord and the suitable substrate (a certain type of limestone) is restricted, P. dactylus may have been outcompeted. In the Netherlands both P. pholadiformis and B. candida often live together in peat on the seabottom, with no evidence of outcompeting one another.
    Economische impact (toelichting) There are no data on its economic impact in the Netherlands


    • Eno, N.C., R.A. Clark & W.G. Sanderson 1997. Non-native marine species in British waters: a review and directory. 1-136. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, UK.
    • Icke, H. 1907. Petricola (Petricolaria) pholadiformis Lam. Tijdschrift der Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging 2: 226.
    • Jensen, K.R. 2010. NOBANIS – Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet – Petricola pholadiformis. In: Identification key to marine invasive species in Nordic waters. [link]
    • Bruyne, R.H. de, S.J. van Leeuwen, A.W. Gmelig Meyling, & R. Daan (red.) 2013. Schelpdieren van het Nederlandse Noordzeegebied. Ecologische atlas van de mariene weekdieren (Mollusca). 1-414. Tirion Uitgevers, Utrecht en Stichting Anemoon, Lisse.
    • Reise, K., S. Gollasch & W.J. Wolff 2002. Introduced marine species of the North Sea Coast. In: Leppakoski et al (ed.). Invasive Aquatic species of Europe, 260-266.. Kluwer, Dordrecht.
    • VLIZ Alien Species Consortium 2011. Amerikaanse boormossel - Petricolaria pholadiformis. Niet-inheemse soorten van het Belgisch deel van de Noordzee en aanpalende estuaria. [link]
    • Wolff, W.J. 2005. Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in The Netherlands. Zoölogische Mededelingen 79: 1-116. [link]
    • Wolff, W.J. & K. Reise 2002. Oyster imports as a vector for the introduction of alien species into northern and western Europe coastal waters. In: Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distribution, impacts and management. 193-205.
    • Wouters, D. 1993. 100 jaar na de invasie van de Amerikaanse boormossel: de relatie Petricola pholadiformis Lamarck, 1818 / Barnea candida Linnaeus, 1758. De Strandvlo 13: 3-39.
    • Zenetos, A., P. Ovalis & E. Vardala-Theodorou 2009. The American piddock Petricola pholadiformis Lamarck, 1818 spreading in the Mediterranean Sea. Aquatic Invasions 4: 385-387.