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Toegeknepen korfmossel Corbicula fluminalis


Cyrenidae [familie]
Corbicula [genus] (2/2)
fluminalis [soort]

Exotenpaspoort ?

Reële kans op vestiging? Ja
Betrouwbaarheid beoordeling Grote mate van zekerheid (meerdere bronnen)
Vestigingsstatus Gevestigd
Zeldzaamheid Zeer algemeen
Invasiviteit Invasief
Invasiviteit (toelichting) C. fluminalis is native to northwest and Oriental Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. The invasive range of this species seems to be restricted to European countries (Bij de Vaate and Greijdanus-Klaas, 1990; Korniushin, 2004). In contrast to C. fluminea, it is not present in North America. It was recorded for the first time in Germany in 1984 (but probably already present in 1980). It is widespread in the rivers Rhine, Mosel and Wesser and connected waters and subsequently present in Germany, the Netherlands, France, Luxembourg and Belgium. Recently it has also spread to other European countries, including Poland, Ukraine, Serbia, Hungary and Italy. The two invasive species in Europe (C. fluminea and C. fluminalis)occur in sympatry and the invasiveness of both species is more or less the same. Both burrowing bivalves show similar sediment preferences, living in mud as well as in sandbottoms. The genus Corbicula in general exhibits a wide variety of reproductive strategies, i.e. seperate sexes or hermaphrodites and also other unusual reproductive features, ranging from oviparity and ovoviviparity to euviviparity (Korniushin & Glaubrecht, 2003). Rajagopal et al. (2000) mention C. fluminalis reveals a better tolerance to low temperatures than C. fluminea, the minimal temperature for reproduction being 6ºC. In the river Rhine the survival of both species is explained by differences in reproductive strategies and possible food preferences (Rajagopal et al., 2000). Gittenberger et al. (1998) mention a slightly higher tolerance for moving waters and a lower salinity tolerance for C. fluminalis. Both species can live in fresh waters as well as in slightly brackish (oligohaline) waters, have a rather broad temperature range (2-34 °C); live up to at least 4 years; produce eggs and sperm simultaneously and can self-fertilize. They both produce, when mature, large quantities of juveniles. (C. fluminea is said to be able to up to 2,000 juveniles a day and more than 100,000 in a lifetime). The most plausible cause of introduction is with ballast waters of ships (Gittenberger et al., 1998). Apart from this, inland waterways facilitate transfer of invasive alien species (Ketelaars, 2004).
Type introductie Niet opzettelijk
Jaar van eerste introductie 1990
Jaar van eerste melding 1990
Natuurlijke verspreiding
  • Azië
  • Afrika
  • Verspreiding in Nederland
  • Drenthe
  • Flevoland
  • Friesland
  • Gelderland
  • Groningen
  • Limburg
  • Noord-Brabant
  • Noord-Holland
  • Overijssel
  • Utrecht
  • Zuid-Holland
  • Zeeland
  • Verspreiding in Nederland (toelichting) C. fluminalis was first mentioned from the Netherlands in 1990 (Blanken 1990), followed by records from the lower basin of the river Rhine by Bij de Vaate and Greijdanus-Klaas (1990). Before this there had already been reports on the presence of two forms or species in the Rhine since 1987 (Kinzelbach 1991, Den Hartog et al. 1992). These were later identified as C. fluminalis and C. fluminea (Gittenberger et al. 1989). C. fluminalis is now present in most parts of the country, although records from the northern provinces need confirmation.
  • Meren
  • Waterwegen
  • Oeverzones
  • Wijze van introductie
  • Ballastwater schip/boot
  • Onderling verbonden waterwegen/bassins/zeeën
  • Impact
  • Nieuwe bron in voedselweb
  • Concurrentie
  • Sociaal-economisch
  • Ecologische impact (toelichting) Corbicula species compete with other filter feeding bivalves (a.o. Unionidae) and other native species, and might have an impact on the environment as is described for C. fluminea. In the Netherlands there is as yet no evidence that C. fluminalis is directly responsible for declines in populations of native species by outcompeting them for space and food. Both species generate a new food source for the indiginous fauna. Several species of fish, duck, mammals, crustaceans and flatworms are mentioned as natural predators (Sickel, 1986). From the Netherlands there are only few records of predators (a.o. rats and birds). Most probably the future will prove there are many more, as it is an easily available and abundant food source.
    Economische impact (toelichting) In the Netherlands both species of Corbicula in general are not considered a pest species, although they are most certainly invasive, with a high risk of establishment and further dispersal. There might be minor economic impacts, for instance fouling of waterpipes of powerplants, but there are no data about this specific species from the Netherlands. Both species are not (yet) in use as a food source for humans or cultivated animals. There is only minor use as bait in sport fisheries.


    • Blanken, E. 1990. Corbicula fluminalis Müller, 1774 nieuw in Nederland. Correspondentieblad Nederlandse Malacologische Vereniging 252: 631-632.
    • CABI 2010. Corbicula fluminalis [original text by F. Freitas, Portugal]. In: Invasive Species Compendium. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
    • Gittenberger, E., A.W. Janssen, W.J. Kuijper, J.G.J. Kuiper, T. Meijer, G. van der Velde & J.N. de Vries 1998. De Nederlandse zoetwatermollusken. Recente en fossiele weekdieren uit zoet en brak water. Nederlandse Fauna 2: 1-288. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Naturalis, Nederland.
    • Vaate, A. bij de & M. Greijdanus-Klaas 1990. The Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) (Pelecypoda, Corbiculidae), a new immigrant in The Netherlands. Bulletin Zoölogisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam 12: 173-178.
    • Hartog, C. den, F.W.B. van den Brink & G. van der Velde 1992. Why was the invasion of the river Rhine by Corophium curvispinum and Corbicula species so successful? Journal of Natural History 26: 1121-1129.
    • Ketelaars, H.A.M. 2004. Range extensions of Ponto-Caspian aquatic invertebrates in continental Europe. In: H. Dumont et al., (eds.), Aquatic Invasions in the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean Seas. 209-236. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
    • Kinzelbach, R. 1991. Die Körbchenmuschel Corbicula fluminalis, Corbicula fluminea und Corbicula fluviatilis in Europa (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae). Mainzer Naturwissenschaftliche Archiv 29: 215-228.
    • Korniushin, A.V. 2004. A revision of some Asian and African freshwater clams assigned to Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Corbiculidae), with a review of anatomical characters and reproductive features based on museum collections. Hydrobiologia 529: 255-270.
    • Korniushin, A.V. & M. Glaubrecht 2003. Novel reproductive modes in freshwater clams: brooding and larval morphology in Southeast Asian taxa of Corbicula (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Corbiculidae). Acta Zoologica 84: 293-315.
    • Rajagopal, S., G. van der Velde & A. bij de Vaate 2000. Reproductive biology of the Asiatic clams Corbicula fluminalis and Corbicula fluminea in the river Rhine. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 149: 403-420.
    • Sickel, J.B. 1986. Corbicula population mortalities: factors influencing population control. In: Proceedings of the Second International Corbicula Symposium, Little Rock, USA, 21-24 June 1983, Hattiesburg, USA, American Malac. Bull. Special Edition. 89-94. American Malacological Union.