Nederlands Soortenregister

Overzicht van de Nederlandse biodiversiteit

Amerikaanse venusschelp Mercenaria mercenaria


Veneridae [familie]
Mercenaria [genus] (1/1)
mercenaria [soort]

Exotenpaspoort ?

Vestigingsstatus Gevestigd
Zeldzaamheid Lokaal
Invasiviteit Potentieel invasief
Invasiviteit (toelichting) M. mercenaria was introduced to the Atlantic coast of France in 1861 (Goulletquer et al. 2002), where it is now stablished in the wild in Brittany. It has also been introduced for aquaculture several times in the UK, the first time in 1925 (Carter 2008). Wild populations were first recorded around 1960 (Heppell, 1961), but its distribution is still restricted. The species has also been introduced intentionally and unintentionally to the west coast of the USA, the Mediterranean, China and to the Netherlands and Belgium. It is highly unlikely this species reached the Netherlands on its own, although secondary dispersal from populations in France or the UK can not be ruled out. It was in the past introduced intentionally to the Netherlands for aquaculture-purposes on several occasions, the species was also bred. Apart from this, accidental introduction with oysters is also possible. The species is relatively euryhaline (4 to 35 ppt, though growth is fastest between 24-28 ppt); it tolerates temperatures from -2° C to 35° C. (although growth is reduced below 10° C and ceases below 5° C); it is adaptable to the environment and lives in muddy sediment as well in finer sand in shallow water to at least 10 m.
Type introductie Opzettelijk en niet opzettelijk
Jaar van eerste introductie 1995
Jaar van eerste melding 2005
Natuurlijke verspreiding Noordelijke Atlantische Oceaan
Verspreiding in Nederland Zeeland
Verspreiding in Nederland (toelichting) In the Netherlands the species was introduced in the 1950s for aquacultural purposes by Dr. Korringa near Bergen op Zoom (now a fresh water area). Dead specimens were found in 1961 in Lake Veere, living animals in the Eastern Scheldt in 1995. Although Wolff (2005) states the species is not reproducing in the wild, there are several records of specimens found, dead and living, outside the area where it was grown in the early 1950s. All these records originate from the province of Zeeland between 1995-2010, mostly from the Eastern Scheldt (De Bruyne et al. 2013). In 2009 a rather large population with live animals was discovered near Ouwerkerk. Based on measurents and growth of the adult specimens, the species may have lived here for 10-30 years (Rijken, 2009). This makes it highly likely the species is established in the Netherlands for at least 20 years. Considering 1995 as the first year of establishment in the Netherlands is therefore very plausable (this is also the year in which dead, but fresh specimens were dug up by lugworm diggers at Hoge Kraaijert, Wolff 2005, Rijken 2009).
  • Mariene habitats
  • Estuaria en brakwatergebieden
  • Wijze van introductie
  • Vrijlating in natuur voor gebruik
  • Visserij
  • Impact Nieuwe bron in voedselweb
    Ecologische impact (toelichting) There are no indications that this species has any ecological impact in the Netherlands.
    Economische impact (toelichting) There are no data on the economic impact of this species in the Netherlands, there is no aquaculture/fisheries.