Nederlands Soortenregister

Overzicht van de Nederlandse biodiversiteit

Asgrauwe tolhoren Steromphala cineraria

Foto: Marion Haarsma

Indeling

Trochidae [familie]
Steromphala [genus] (3/1)
cineraria [soort]

Exotenpaspoort ?

Vestigingsstatus Gevestigd
Zeldzaamheid Lokaal
Invasiviteit Niet invasief
Invasiviteit (toelichting) G. cineraria is native to the Atlantic Ocean, parts of the Mediterranean and the coast of Morocco. It also lives on the Azores and Canary Islands and the North Sea coast of the UK. Originally it did not inhabit the North Sea coasts of the Netherlands and Belgium; here it became extinct since the Eemian period (Ipswichian Stage). The climate in this period, which began about 130,000 years ago and ended about 114,000 years ago, is believed to have been warmer than the climate nowadays. Shells (fossils) still are washed up regularly. As the species actually is European, it is problably not to be considered an invasive species in general. In the Netherlands however, where the species became extinct for over 100 000 years ago, it can only be considered non-indiginous. The species is found on the lower levels of rocky shores, between seaweeds and under stones. Although recorded to a depth of 130 m, it is usually considered a sublittoral species, which sometimes can be found in rock pools higher on the shore. Except for the obvious range-extension, the species shows no particular signs of invasiveness. It may live 1-3 years, but is only moderately fertile; the egg-cases are layed individualy, with the larvae having only a very short planktonic stage (a few days maximum). The only pathway vector for its distribution seems to be aquaculture (mussels, oysters).
Type introductie Niet opzettelijk
Jaar van eerste introductie 1994
Jaar van eerste melding 1994
Natuurlijke verspreiding Noordelijke Atlantische Oceaan
Verspreiding in Nederland Zeeland
Verspreiding in Nederland (toelichting) In the 1970s G. cineraria was imported several times with oysters or mussels for aquaculture, originating from Ireland. However, the species did not establish itself until 1994. That year the first specimens were observed alive outside the aquacultural areas of the Eastern Scheldt, near Sas van Goes. A few years later Moolenbeek (1999) reported several specimens dredged from 3-6 km off Yerseke. In the following years it became clear that G. cineraria was establishing itself in the Eastern Scheldt. Nowadays the species is not rare, although usually not particularly abundant. The species is still spreading (De Bruyne et al. 2013).
Habitats
  • Mariene habitats
  • Estuaria en brakwatergebieden
  • Kustgebied
  • Wijze van introductie
  • Visserij
  • Aquacultuur
  • Impact Herbivorie
    Ecologische impact (toelichting) There are no indications that this species has any ecological impact in the Netherlands.
    Economische impact (toelichting) There are no data on the economic impact of this species in the Netherlands.

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