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Jenkins' waterhorentje Potamopyrgus antipodarum

Foto: Marion Haarsma


Hydrobiidae [familie]
Potamopyrgus [genus] (1/1)

Exotenpaspoort ?

Vestigingsstatus Gevestigd
Zeldzaamheid Zeer algemeen
Invasiviteit Invasief
Invasiviteit (toelichting) P. antipodarum is native to freshwaters of New Zealand (Ponder 1988). It was recorded for the first time in Europe in the Thames estuary in 1859 (Hubendick 1950) after first being described by Smith (1989) as Hydrobia jenkinsi. Most probably from there it soon started to spread to most other European countries and waters (including the Baltic and the Black Sea). It also invaded North America. Its invasiveness is, apart from its rapid spread over Europe and large abundancy (more than 100 000 per m2) at many localities, shown by its adaptability to different habitats and substrata (plants, stones, wood, mud- and sandbottoms); its broad salinity range, the animals are able to live in fresh waters as well as in brackish waters (0 - 20 ppt); its broad temperature range (5° C - 33° C); its ability to reproduce parthenogenetic (just one specimen is able to establish an entire new population) and the protection of its young (it is ovoviviparous, the embryos are kept in a special breed-chamber). The many different ways the dispersion takes place are also an important factor for its succes as invader. The species may have been transported to Europe from Australia, (where it was also not-indiginous) in drinking water barrels on board of ships (Fretter & Graham 1994). Secondary dispersal probably takes place with birds, through connected water courses, in ballast water, with aquaculture products, fishing gear, boats and many other types of floating objects (Jensen 2010; Gittenberger et al. 1998).
Type introductie Niet opzettelijk
Jaar van eerste introductie 1913
Jaar van eerste melding 1913
Natuurlijke verspreiding
  • Oceanië
  • Zuidelijke Stille Oceaan
  • Verspreiding in Nederland
  • Drenthe
  • Flevoland
  • Friesland
  • Gelderland
  • Groningen
  • Limburg
  • Noord-Brabant
  • Noord-Holland
  • Overijssel
  • Utrecht
  • Zuid-Holland
  • Zeeland
  • Verspreiding in Nederland (toelichting) P. antipodarum was found for the first time in the Netherlands in 1913 (Scholten 1913). The following years, until Ponder (1988) identified the species as P. antipodarum from New Zealand, all over the country many recordings were made under the name Hydrobia (Potamopyrgus) jenkinsi (Smith). The species already occurred in the former Zuiderzee before it was closed off from the sea and converted into a fresh water lake (Van Benthem Jutting 1922). In Lake IJssel the species nowadays is very abundant, as it is in many other large lakes and all kinds of smaller waters. It is also present in some brackish waters, for instance in and around the North Sea Canal and at several localities in the provinces of Zeeland, Noord-Holland, Zuid-Holland, Friesland and Groningen.
  • Meren
  • Waterwegen
  • Oeverzones
  • Impact
  • Herbivorie
  • Nieuwe bron in voedselweb
  • Concurrentie
  • Ecologische impact (toelichting) P. antipodarum is known to compete for food and space with other species (but not with other Hydrobidae (Gittenberger et al. 1998). It has been associated with a decline in settlement of native species. After a risk analysis the species in Norway now is considered a high risk species because of negative impact on ecosystems and native species (Gederaas et al. 2007). In the Netherlands no such risk analysis was performed and there are no data available of its impact, other than observation of the species quickly becoming one of the most dominant species in many waters. In its native range P. antipodarum is an intermediate host to many parasites, which reflects on final hosts (Morley 2008). It is suggested that in Europe at least part of the invasive success is caused by the absence of most parasites (Jensen 2010).
    Economische impact (toelichting) There are no indication of an economic impacts by P. antipodarum in the Netherlands.