Nederlands Soortenregister

Overzicht van de Nederlandse biodiversiteit

Ronde zakpijp Molgula manhattensis

Foto: Marion Haarsma

Indeling

Molgulidae [familie]
Molgula [genus] (6/3)

Exotenpaspoort ?

Vestigingsstatus Gevestigd
Zeldzaamheid Algemeen
Invasiviteit Potentieel invasief
Invasiviteit (toelichting) There is debate whether this is an invasive species. The origin might be the North East Atlantic Ocean (Wolff 2005). Some authors (for instance Hayward & Ryland 1995) consider the American M. manhattensis a different species from the European one, the latter being named either Molgula tubifera (Örstedt 1844) or Molgula socialis Alder, 1863. In that case M. manhattensis is to be excluded as European invasive species. Wolff (2005) followed Monniot (1969) who did not find differences. Recent genetic research in Belgium revealed that at least the species living in Zeebrugge is the 'real' M. manhattensis. In the Dutch Wadden Sea however, both M. manhattensis and M. socialis were recorded (Gittenberger et al. 2009). The data in this sheet are of te 'European M. manhattensis'. There are several factors for its invasiveness. It is a fast growing, highly adaptable species. It lives in a great number of marine and brackish water habitats. It is hermafroditic and capable of self-fertilization, it is euryhaline, tolerates lower and higher temperatures and is not limited by them in dispersion, it is tolerant of eutrophication and industrial pollution (Cohen & Carlton 1995, VLIZ 2011). [N.B.: The description of an Ascidian by Baster (1762) is considered by some to be of M manhattensis, making the earliest record 1762 (see: Wolff 2005).
Type introductie Niet opzettelijk
Jaar van eerste melding 1934
Natuurlijke verspreiding
  • Noord-Amerika
  • Noordelijke Atlantische Oceaan
  • Verspreiding in Nederland
  • Friesland
  • Groningen
  • Noord-Holland
  • Zuid-Holland
  • Zeeland
  • Verspreiding in Nederland (toelichting) This species may have lived in the Netherlands since at least 1762. Apart from this, the earliest records are probably those from 1922 from the former Zuiderzee (Sluiter in Redeke et al. 1922) where it was rather common. In 1956 the species was considered common and locally even abundant, in the Wadden Sea and in the provice of Zeeland. This is still the case, although it probably reflects at least 2 species (M. manhattensis and M. socialis, the latter may be indiginous to the Northern Atlantic).
    Habitats
  • Mariene habitats
  • Estuaria en brakwatergebieden
  • Wijze van introductie
  • Aquacultuur
  • Aangroei op scheepsrompen
  • Onderling verbonden waterwegen/bassins/zeeën
  • Impact Concurrentie
    Ecologische impact (toelichting) M. manhattensis is at least a competitor for space. It grows on hard substrates, but also on sand. It might also change the habitat, foulling other species and limit them in coverage and growth. In the Netherlands there are no specific data of negative impact on the ecosystem, but there are some - compettition - in Belgium (Leloup & Polk 1967).
    Economische impact (toelichting) This may be a fouling species on bivalves like oysters and mussels, limitting them in coverage and thus it is responsible for a lower growth rate, in the wild as well as in aquacultures. It is a fouling species on hulls of ships and other solid structures. In the Netherlands however, there are as yet no specific data of negative economic impact.

    Publicaties

    • Baster, J. 1762-1765. Natuurkundige uitspanningen, behelzende eenige waarneemingen, over sommige zee-planten en zee-insecten, benevens derzelver zaadhuisjes en eijernesten [Deel 1: 173 p. (1762); deel 2: 171 p. (1765)]. J. Bosch, Haarlem.
    • Bloklander, A.E.H.M., J.H. Stock & R. Boddeke 1956. Tabel der Manteldieren, SWG tabellenserie 15. 1-12. Strandwerkgroep.
    • Cohen, A.N. & J.T. Carlton 1995. Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. 1-201. Report for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C., and the National Sea Grant College Program, Connecticut Sea Grant.
    • Sluiter, Ph., H.C. Redeke, et al. 1922. Flora en Fauna der Zuiderzee. Monografie van een brakwatergebied. 1-460. Nederlandse Dierkundige vereeniging & De Boer Jr., Den Helder.
    • Leloup, E. & P. Polk 1967. La flore et la faune du Bassin de Chasse d'Ostende (1960-1961): 3. Etude zoologique. Mémoires de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 157.
    • Gittenberger, A., M. Rensing, H. Stegenga & B.W. Hoeksema 2009. Inventarisatie van de aan hard substraat gerelateerde macroflora en macrofauna in de Nederlandse Waddenzee. GiMaRIS rapport, GiMaRIS 2009.11.
    • VLIZ Alien Species Consortium 2011. Ronde zakpijp - Molgula manhattensis. Niet-inheemse soorten van het Belgisch deel van de Noordzee en aanpalende estuaria (I/UZ Information Sheet 44). 1-6. Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee (VLIZ), Oostende, Belgium.
    • Wolff, W.J. 2005. Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in The Netherlands. Zoölogische Mededelingen 79: 1-116. [link]