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Gladde slang Coronella austriaca

Foto: Bert de Ruiter


Colubridae [familie]
Coronella [genus] (1/1)
austriaca [soort]


The smooth snake is present on the higher sandy soils and the raised bogs present there. Core area is the Veluwe area in the province of Gelderland. Highest numbers are observed in two raised bog remnants: Fochteloƫrveen on the border of the provinces Friesland and Drenthe in the north, and Peelvenen on the border of the provinces Noord-Brabant and Limburg in the south of the country.


The smooth snake is listed on the Red List as threatened. It is strictly protected under Dutch legislation, the Bern Convention (Annex ii) and the Habitats Directive (Annex iv). The range of the smooth snake decreased by 68% since 1950. It disappeared from two provinces (Noord-Holland and Utrecht). The enormous decrease and fragmentation of heathlands and raised bogs are the most important causes for the decline. Too intensive and large scale nature conservation management has been a serious threat since the 1980s. The species can be encouraged by a careful and small scale management of heathlands and raised bogs with special care for high and dry parts, especially in the latter habitat type.


Six out of 132 examined Netherlands smooth snakes appeared to have the scaling characteristics assumed to be typical for the disputed southern Italian subspecies C. a. fitzingeri. This gives rise to more doubt about the validity of this subspecies.



Delft, J.J.C.W. van, Keijsers, P.L.G.


  • Creemers, R.C.M. & J.J.C.W. van Delft 2009. De amfibieĆ«n en reptielen van Nederland. Nederlandse Fauna 9. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.