Confirmed breeding was observed in 1999 (at least 26 bp) and 2000 (32), but only few areas were occupied in both years. Like during influxes in previous years, most breeding attempts were located in the Delta area. Often, breeding habitat consists of artificial water bodies like sewage works and renaturation areas, in the Delta area also forelands of former estuaries. Since the first breeding record in 1931, the occurrence as a breeding bird has been erratic, with recently an increasing number of records. Reproductive output is rather poor (in 1979-98 of 50 nests on average 0,5 young/nest fledged).
Meininger, P. L.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.