In 1998-2000 only 8, 6 and 5 bp, respectively. More or less annual breeding took place around the reclaimed polder Lauwersmeer, near the Wadden Sea, and along the Frisian coast of Lake IJsselmeer (Mokkebank). At Lauwersmeer, a few small colonies established during the 1970s and 1980s (maximum of 61 bp in 1978), but these had become extinct by 1991. All breeding pairs in 1998-2000 failed. Often, breeding pairs consist of birds which breed for the first time, and fail because of lack of breeding experience.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.