Breeding annually since 1994 in The Netherlands, after an accidental attempt in 1979. In 1998-2000 5, 9 and 20 bp were recorded, respectively. The Delta area in the southwest Netherlands (since 1994, four locations with up to 9 pairs/ site) and Wadden Sea islands (since 1999, three locations of 1-2 bp) might establish firm breeding populations. Breeding on the mainland (since 1996) is most promising in the Oostvaardersplassen area (3-6 bp). At the end of the 1990s, several hundreds of birds were staging in late summer - especially in the Delta area- and some tens even wintered.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.