The species breeds in all urbanised areas, except for the new city of Almere, established since the 1980s in the reclaimed polder Zuidelijk Flevoland. Highest densities occur in built-up areas, with few exceptions. Mixed farmland with scattered buildings and a high proportion of arable land generally holds moderate to high densities, open farmland is avoided. Information on trends is somewhat biased towards rural populations, but a decline since the mid-1980s is obvious. The breeding population in 1998-2000 is estimated at 50,000-100,000 bp (100,000-150,000 bp in 1979-85).
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.