Highest densities on sandy soils, where mixed farming systems prevail. Densities much lower in urban areas, extensive woodland, dairy farming regions (meadows on peat) and polders with large-scale arable farming. Substantial gaps in the distribution in the west and north were colonised in the 1980s and 1990s. The numerical growth is mainly caused by an increase in the core areas on the sandy soils in the east and south, partly linked with adaptations to modern farming and less competition with the declining Common Wood Pigeon. About 50,000-70,000 bp in 1998-2000 (30,000-40,000 in 1979-85).
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.