Major range expansion into the lower and less wooded areas of the country. Differences in densities between former core areas on the sandy soils and newly colonised areas elsewhere tend to level out as the species becomes less bound to coniferous woodland. Ongoing increases in the lowlands in the 1990s, but strong local declines elsewhere, partly because of heavy predation by Northern Goshawk, changes in forest management and dwindling food supplies (House Sparrow). About 4000-5000 bp in 1998-2000, a fourfold increase since 1973-77.
Diermen, J. van
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.