Breeding bird in almost all atlas squares with sufficient woodland, sometimes in isolated woodlots or urban habitat (Amsterdam: 5 bp). Densities of 1-3 bp/square are common, 4-10/square only in extensive forests with favourable food conditions. Enormous range expansion since the 1970s reflects a recovery from the pesticide era, decreased persecution and increase of breeding habitat (afforestation) and food supplies. In the 1990s numbers stabilized or even fell on the sandy soils, partly due to deteriorating food availability. In 1998-2000 about 1800-2000 bp were recorded (500-600 in 1977).
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.