The species is perhaps slightly overestimated as pairs hold large territories and may display further away from the nest. The distribution is related to the occurrence of extensive woodland, except for a few areas (Flevoland, coastal areas, Noord-Brabant) where food might be scarce. No preference for deciduous or coniferous forests. Since the 1970s, an expansion in breeding range was recorded, influenced by afforestation as well as more thorough research, especially outside the Veluwe area. Numbers probably fell slightly in the 1990s, partly due to predation by Northern Goshawk. About 500-650 bp in 1998-2000.
Manen, W. van
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-20005: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.