Widespread breeding bird, only absent in the driest parts of the country. Highest densities in open farmland and marshes in the north and west of the country, including the river area. Range expansion in sub-optimal habitats since the 1970s reflects a broader habitat choice. The species became a regular breeding bird in urban habitat, small ditches in farmland and artificial water bodies on the higher grounds, and benefited probably from eutrophication of surface waters. General population increase is only temporarily checked by severe winters. About 130,000-180,000 bp in 1998-2000 (50,000-80,000 in 1973-77).
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.