Mainly confined to natural streams in three areas in the east (Twente, Achterhoek) and southeast (Limburg) of the country. Numbers exceed only rarely 10 bp/square. Since the 1970s a gradual population increase took place, with dips caused by cold winters. The breeding range has expanded somewhat into sub-optimal regions, although habitat preference limits the distribution within The Netherlands rather strictly. Since the mid-1970s numbers have grown from 110-175 bp to 240-300 bp in 1998-2000. Renaturation of streams might result in a further increase.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.