Slightly less widely distributed than House Sparrow, avoiding urban areas, extensive woodland and open natural habitat. Abundant only in mixed small-scale farmland. In open farmland, arable land is preferred over grassland. Minor changes in distribution since the 1970s, apart from a colonisation of the most recent embankments in Flevoland. In woodland and coastal dunes, an initial increase in the 1960s and 1970s turned into a serious decline by the end of the 1970s, coinciding with a 70-90% reduction in numbers. In farmland trends are probably comparable. The population in 1998-2000 is estimated at 50,000-150,000 bp.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.