Although widely distributed, high densities are mainly confined to heaths, peat moors, young forests and the coastal dunes, whereas open farmland is rather thinly populated. Short-term local population explosions are well-known, e.g. in new forestry plantations. Long-term trends in different habitats vary between stable figures (woodland), steady increase (farmland) and initial increase followed by some decline in the 1990s (dunes). The population is estimated at 450,000-550,000 bp in 1998-2000.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-20005: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.