The distribution is confined to the extreme east (Achterhoek) and especially southeast (Limburg) of the country, close to nearby populations in Germany and Belgium. Part of the observations elsewhere (probable breeding records) might refer to late migrants. The species breeds individually or in loose colonies (max. 22 bp in 1998-2000), often in small river valleys in somewhat hilly country. The current population of 150-200 bp is a remnant of a much larger population of 700-900 bp around 1986-90, when colonisation of The Netherlands (started in 1972) had reached its maximum. This decline coincides with similar trends in nearby populations across the border.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.