Breeding is mainly confined to forelands along the upper part of the river Waal, arable land in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen and the Meuse valley in s Limburg. This represents a relict from a much wider breeding range, which included the entire river district, large parts of Limburg and arable landscapes in Groningen (in 1975 totalling 1100-1250 bp), but became deserted in the past decades. These losses are mainly attributed to increased agricultural pressure, coinciding with the introduction of green maize, increased use of autumn-sown cereals and disappearing stubble fields in winter. In 1998-2000 (50-100 bp), the population was still declining.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.