Mainly confined to extensive forests and the inner dunes. Clear preference for older deciduous forests (especially oak and beech), hence hardly occurring in Noord-Brabant (extensive but Pinus-dominated woodland). Part of the losses in atlas squares since the 1970s is fictive, caused by identification-errors. In some areas (e.g. Drenthe) a strong increase occurred until the 1990s. Elsewhere, populations were generally stable or even (marginal areas) dwindling. Some 12,000-15,000 bp in 1998-2000.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.