Common in all parts of the country, except for coastal, treeless habitats and extensive heaths and afforested areas like the Veluwe. Moreover, distribution is affected by the occurrence of Carrion Crow (dominant over Magpie) and Northern Goshawk (high predation risk). Therefore, high densities occur in urban regions, where both species are scarce. Numbers have experienced a general increase since the 1970s, but recently many wooded areas and also some farmland-dominated areas in the east and south have become deserted as a result of increased Northern Goshawk predation, competition with Carrion Crow, and changes in manuring system. About 40,000-60,000 bp in 1998-2000.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.