Well-distributed over the higher parts of the country, generally in low densities but up to over 10 bp/atlas square in areas with mature woodland. The species does not completely avoid open areas, if these are scattered with woodlots, as in parts of the river area. A substantial range expansion since the 1970s was recorded on sandy soils in the south of the country and - less spectacular - in the northeast. In the latter case, source areas for colonisation were at a larger distance, whereas predation by Northern Goshawk frustrates further expansion (as is known elsewhere as well, e.g. in the coastal dunes). About 4500-5500 bp in 1998-2000 (only 2500-3000 in 1973-77).
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.