Breeding is almost confined to heaths, sand drifts and (sometimes) open forest on the poorest sandy deposits of the centre and south of the country, with low densities in the northeast and an almost complete absence elsewhere. Major concentrations occur only in the Veluwe, with in one atlas square over 100 bp situated in a military exercise area. A long-term population decline, attributed to habitat loss and adverse changes in vegetation, is reflected in a breeding range contraction from the 1970s onwards. Some regional recovery was reported in the 1990s. In 1998-2000 about 950-1150 bp (against 1000 in 1973-77, probably underestimated).
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.