The species is mainly reported as a possible or probable breeding bird, since a considerable population of non-breeders is present in summer. Confirmed breeding is reported in the province of Friesland, along the rivers and in the Delta area. Although breeding was already recorded in 1980, it was a national ban on the use of live-decoys for hunting in 1988 that enhanced the establishment of a larger population, especially in the areas mentioned above. Apparent increases are reported since then, with 200-250 bp in 1998-2000. A further expansion is expected.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-2000. Nederlandse Fauna 5: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.