Breeding could not be confirmed in 1998-2000. Most records refer to mixed pairs with Tufted Duck. The species was always very rare as a breeding bird, but bred almost annually in 1973-77. Breeding has become accidental in the 1990s.
- SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse broedvogels 1998-20005: 1-584. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.