The fire salamander has a very limited range in the Netherlands. Nowadays it is only present in the extreme south of the province of Limburg. A large population of hundreds of animals is present near the city of Maastricht (Bunderbos) and occupies 8 km2. Further to the east the species is present near six small brooks in the valley of the river Geul where it occupies 6 km2. In 1920 a specimen was collected from Winterswijk in the province of Gelderland close to the German border. In this region old woods and small brooks are present which seem suitable habitat for fire salamanders. In neighbouring Germany fire salamanders are present at a locality less than 2 km from the Dutch border.
The fire salamander is listed on the Red List as threatened. It is strictly protected under Dutch legislation and the Bern Convention (Annex iii). The range of the fire salamander in the Netherlands has decreased by about 57% since 1950. Little is known about the causes of decline, but most probably this species has suffered from lowering of the water levels and the general disturbance of the hydrology of the area. In the past three decades the main threats have been the use of herbicides, the rearrangement of ditches and illegal collecting of animals for the pet trade. The introduction of animals from other European countries, with different genetic characteristics, into the native population is also a serious problem. Management for this species is aimed at maintaining natural forests and restoring wells and brooks.
- Creemers, R.C.M. & J.J.C.W. van Delft 2009. De amfibieën en reptielen van Nederland. Nederlandse Fauna 9. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.