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Kruiskwal Gonionemus vertens

Foto: Marion Haarsma


Olindiidae [familie]
Gonionemus [genus] (1/1)
vertens [soort]

Exotenpaspoort ?

Reële kans op vestiging? Ja
Betrouwbaarheid beoordeling Grote mate van zekerheid (meerdere bronnen)
Vestigingsstatus Gevestigd
Zeldzaamheid Lokaal
Invasiviteit Potentieel invasief
Invasiviteit (toelichting) G. vertens is native to the North Pacific (Vietnam, Sea of Okhotsk, Puget Sound, Aleutian Islands). It is introduced to Southern California, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Atlantic Europe (including the Netherlands) and the Mediterranean. Its invasiveness is shown, apart from the large dispersion area, by the fact that the species is rather adaptable to different environments, has a broad temperature range (cold temperate-warm temperate) and has a broad salinity range (polyhaline-euhaline). It is unknown how this species arrived in Europe, where it was first recorded in 1913 (Scotland; Edwards 1976). Broch (1929) mentions transport in ballast water, Leloup (1948) and Edwards (1976) assume introduction with imported American oysters (Crassostrea virginica or gigas), Tambs-Lyche (1964) and Carlton (1985) mention transport (of the polyp) on hulls of ships.
Type introductie Niet opzettelijk
Jaar van eerste introductie 1960
Jaar van eerste melding 1960
Natuurlijke verspreiding Noordelijke Stille Oceaan
Verspreiding in Nederland
  • Friesland
  • Noord-Holland
  • Zeeland
  • Verspreiding in Nederland (toelichting) In the Netherlands G. vertens was recorded for the first time in a non-tidal brackish creek at the former island of Walcheren in 1960 (Leentvaar 1960, 1961), although it almost certainly was present earlier, as Leloup (1948) recorded it from Belgium (Ostend, close to the Dutch coast) in 1946 and 1947. In Lake Grevelingen it was observed frequently, but almost disappeared with the diminishing of the Zostera fields (Edwards 1976, Bakker 1980, Wolff 2005). Nowadays the species occurs rather local at mostly brackish localities (for instance Lake Geos) aroud the Eastern Scheldt, but never seems to be abundant. There are no recordings from the Wadden Sea, nor along the North Sea coast of the provinces Noord-Holland and Zuid-Holland).
  • Mariene habitats
  • Estuaria en brakwatergebieden
  • Wijze van introductie
  • Botanische tuin/dierentuin/aquaria
  • Ballastwater schip/boot
  • Aangroei op scheepsrompen
  • Onderling verbonden waterwegen/bassins/zeeën
  • Impact Predatie
    Ecologische impact (toelichting) There are no indications of the ecological impact in the Netherlands. The meduse obviously feeds upon zooplankton, isopods, amphipods, but the impact is of no significance to the environment. In Lake Grevelingen the species was locally present between from 1976 to the late 1980s, but has now almost dissappeared, most probably because of the declining Zostera-fields.
    Economische impact (toelichting) A sting of this species can cause muscle cramps, chest tightness and swollen throats. This jellyfish however is not likely to be abundant in areas often used by swimmers, but could affect casual waders and swimmers to a degree that hospital treatment is necessary.


    • Bakker, C. 1980. On the distribution of Gonionemus vertens A. Agassiz (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae) a new species in the eelgrass beds of Lake Grevelingen (S.W. Netherlands). Hydrobiological Bulletin 14: 186-195.
    • Bakker, C. 1981. De hydromeduse Gonionemus vertens A. Agassiz, de kruiskwal, voorkomend in de zeegrasvelden van het Grevelingenmeer. Natura 78: 2-16.
    • Broch, H. 1929. Craspedote Medusen, Trachylinen (Trachymedusen und Narcomedusen). In: K. Brandt & C. Apstein (eds.), Nordisches Plankton. 12: 481-540.
    • Carlton, J.T. 1985. Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water. Oceanography and Marine Biology - An Annual Review 23: 313-371.
    • Edwards, C. 1976. A study in erratic distribution: The occurrence of the medusa Gonionemus in relation to the distribution of oysters. Advances in Marine Biology 14: 251-284.
    • Eno, N.C., R.A. Clark & W.G. Sanderson 1997. Non-native marine species in British waters: a review and directory. 1-136. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, UK.
    • Fofonoff, P.W., G.M. Ruiz, B. Steves & J.T. Carlton 2003. National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System. [link]
    • Leentvaar, P. 1960. Een zeldzame kwal in de Rammekenshoek. De Levende Natuur 63: 261-262.
    • Leentvaar, P. 1961. Two interesting invertebrates, Limnadia lenticularis (L.) (Crustacea Phyllopoda) and Gonionemus vertens A. Agassiz (Limnomedusae), found in the Netherlands. Zoologische Mededelingen 37: 225-230.
    • Leloup, E. 1948. Présence de la trachyméduse Gonionemus murbachi Mayer, 1901, à la côte belge. Bulletin Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut Voor Natuurwetenschappen 24: 1-4.