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Zoetwaterkwal Craspedacusta sowerbii

Foto: Marion Haarsma


Olindiidae [familie]
sowerbii [soort]

Exotenpaspoort ?

Vestigingsstatus Gevestigd
Zeldzaamheid Lokaal
Invasiviteit Niet invasief
Invasiviteit (toelichting) C. sowerbii is said to be native to the Yangtze rivervalley in China. The medusa itself was first described in 1880 from a water-lily tank in London. It has been introduced almost all over the world, presumably with shipments of aquatic plants (Fofonoff 2003). In the Netherlands it is usually found in calm fresh waters, especially in lakes and ponds, but are also reported from tidal freshwater. The species invasiveness is shown, apart from the worldwide dispersion area, by the fact that it has a broad temperature range (cold temperate-subtropical, minimum temperature 4ºC, maximum 33ºC), and a polyhaline-euhaline salinity range, although in the Netherlands it mainly is reported from fresh waters. In Japan and Australia its spread was probably due to transport with military WWII equipment. After initial introductions, it spreads rapidly, aided by many human vectors (i.e. boating and shipping, stocking of fishes, machinery and tools used in freshwater, aquatic plant). The species may also be dispersed by birds (Dumont 1994).
Type introductie Niet opzettelijk
Jaar van eerste introductie 1930
Jaar van eerste melding 1936
Natuurlijke verspreiding Azië
Verspreiding in Nederland
  • Drenthe
  • Flevoland
  • Friesland
  • Gelderland
  • Limburg
  • Noord-Brabant
  • Noord-Holland
  • Overijssel
  • Utrecht
  • Zuid-Holland
  • Zeeland
  • Verspreiding in Nederland (toelichting) In the Netherlands the first record is supposed to be from a canalized part of the the river Meuse at Neer, 8-06-1930. Here over 50 young medusa were collected by Redeke and De Vos (Dejdar 1934, Wagenaar Hummelinck 1936). In 1930 also the first adult was collected in the Reeuwijksche Plassen (Wagenaar Hummelinck, 1936). [NB: The 1762 record from the Spaarne at Haarlem, published by Baster in 1765 as Medusa aequorea or M. aurita (see Wagenaar Hummelinck 1938, 1939), are in fact those of Maeotis marginata (pers. comm. G. van Moorsel at http://www.werkgroepexoten.nl].The species occurs irregularly in freshwater habitats all over the Netherlands, with the province of Groningen as a posiible exception, from where no records were traced].
  • Meren
  • Waterwegen
  • Wetlands
  • Wijze van introductie
  • Visserij
  • Aquacultuur
  • Huisdier-/aquariumhandel
  • Transport van habitatmateriaal (grond, vegetatie, hout)
  • Hengelsport-/visuitrusting
  • Ballastwater schip/boot
  • Aangroei op scheepsrompen
  • Ecologische impact (toelichting) In general there is no ecological impact of C. Sowerbii to the environment. C. sowerbii medusae are not likely to be of major concern, they are said to consume 0.1-10% of the daily Daphnia production (Fofonoff et al. 2003 ). Polyps also have no significant impact on the zooplankton (DeVries 1992).
    Economische impact (toelichting) There are no reported economic impacts of C. sowerbii.