Nymphalis antiopa used to be a resident, but is now extinct. It flew in one generation from the beginning of August until the beginning of September, and after hibernation, from the end of March until the end of April. Thus, the development into adult butterfly takes longer than it does in other species which hibernate as an adult. The species was found in clearings and at the edge of woodland rich in structure; several species of Salix and Betula served as larval foodplant. After years with hardly any change in its occurrence, it suddenly disappeared in 1964. In the years that followed, only a few migrants were seen, until 1995, when there was an enormous invasion from south-Poland and the Czech Republic: about 1600 butterflies were recorded between July and November. The following spring, more than four hundred butterflies had emerged from hibernation, but only tens of newly emerged butterflies were seen in the summer of 1996. This indicated that reproduction had taken place, although no caterpillar nests were found. Unfortunately, its re-appearance was brief; the species was unable to re-establish itself.
Wynhoff, I., Swaay, C. van, Groenendijk, D., Bosveld, M., Bos, F.
- Bos, F., M. Bosveld, D. Groenendijk, C. van Swaay & I. Wynhoff 2006. De dagvlinders van Nederland, verspreiding en bescherming. Nederlandse Fauna 7. De Vlinderstichting, Wageningen en Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, European Invertebrate Survey, Nederland.